I was sent this text by Dave Gieskieng in December 1998 coupled with a message which included the words: "I am counting on you to put the enclosed paper on Internet http:\\www.energyscience.co.uk" and I am here complying with that request as a token of respect for Dave, who has just reached his 80th birthday and is not in good health. I wish him well in this last year of the Millennium.
Harold Aspden

Dave is now deceased but his memory lives on, this webpage having been transferred to this website www.energyscience.org.uk which now replaces the www.energyscience.co.uk website.


Copyright, D. H. Gieskieng, 1999

Logic suggests that there must be a propagation medium as a Maxwell carrier of radio waves, photons and other rays, and the make-up of electrons and other particles. The universality of such a medium and the long ranging of gravitational fields may indicate that anomalies in this medium, as caused by partial exclusion of it in the space occupied by particles or clumps or bodies of them, tend to gravitate or draw together. The familiar experiment of iron filings on a paper on a magnet does not illustrate a field that the magnet is exuding, but rather a strain that the magnet places on the adjacent medium. strain of the medium can also be caused by flow of electrons in a conductor, permitting rapid magnetic polarity reversal, inductors, transformers, and resonent antenna excitation. James Clerk Maxwell (1831-79) predicted radio waves having equal electric and magnetic components, or an impedance of 1 ohm.

It is well known that the center of a resonant half wave dipole antenna has maximum current and little or no voltage, whereas as a condition of resonance the ends experience maximum voltage and little or no current. The fact that this high current or magnetic middle has been very successfully used in countless inverted-vee antennas by placing that portion of them as high as possible on a single mast and draping the ends, suggests that the propagation medium is a universally large neutral magnetic field. In such antennas it makes little difference that the high voltage ends are nearer the ground where increased absorption is probable, since the electric fields radiated from there are rather quickly lost anyway, being in excess of the long ranging Maxwellian radio wave requirement.

The so called Maxwell antenna keeps the dipole center portion straight for a length corresponding to an average impedance of one ohm, or matching the impedance of waves in space that Maxwell predicted, and the two ends of the remaining half wave length required for resonance are brought away at right angles and parallel to each other, which in the manner of open transmission lines prevents radiation from the higher impedance portion of the excitation. Containing this excess portion prevents its waste in the amount of half the power, making it available to help drive the middle, or shorting bar, as well as significantly affecting the pattern of radiation, making it somewhat spherical.

Within a distance of about 15 miles, most of the excess electric fields of a conventional dipole antenna or beams consisting of them are dissipated, but their closer presence has apparently led to an averaging of 377 ohms wave impedance, which is grossly greater than Maxwell's prediction. As of 1994, authoritarian references on far out wave impedance is non-existent. Perhaps that a half wave dipole can be center fed with a 75 ohm line led to some mistrust of any concept that it could be as low as 1 ohm, but it must be remembered that a conventional dipole is also involved with excess electric field.

The presence of the excess electric fields below a conventional dipole antenna greatly affects wave reflection and the lobe angle of the radiation, whereas this is absent with the Maxwell antenna. The conventional dipole antenna has very pronounced end-nulls because the high electric fields there are refractory to the passage of the Maxwellian waves. By keeping these electric fields out of the way the Maxwell antenna is omnidirectional in both the horizontal and vertical modes. It was its horizontal omnidirectivity that first aroused my interest. Many field tests with differently proportioned Maxwell antennas indicates that the radiation impedance of the shorting bar rises to 1 ohm from its center to its ends, regardless of a variety of transmission line spacings or conductor diameters.

Fluorescent bulb surveys about the Maxwell antenna indicate that the electric fields swirl cylindrically around each leg of the transmission line portion, with the like charge repulsion effect keeping the swirls from touching, expanding and radiating. The indicated field at the open end of the line stops there very abruptly, and at the other end the 90o bends cause a distinction between the line and shorting bar fields. There is an electric null at the very center of the shorting bar, corresponding to the alternating current change of polarity, or that the field there is purely magnetic or zero impedance. The two antenna halves seem to image each other. If the shorting bar is vertical the radiated wave is vertically polarized, and if horizontal it is horizontally polarized. When the horizontal and vertical monitor antennas on Squaw Mountain were averaged the Maxwell antenna was omndirectionally one or two db stronger than the favored direction of six Denver area beams when plotted to the same height and distance.

Photons, or elements of light, are generated by the orbit change of electrons in an atom, giving off a single electric pulse amounting to only a partial wavelength. It would seem that it inherits its initial speed of light velocity from the spin of the electron, and maintains it by electromagnetic oscillation with the propagation medium. Photons are thus both an electromagnetic wave and particle, and subject to gravitational pull, as Einstein discovered in the early 1900's during an eclipse of the sun by variation of the normal star pattern near the sun.

Also, within about the last decade, mechanical navigational gyros have been superseded by laser driven optical fiberglass coils, thus utilizing photon inertia. Since photons can escape from an electron, or be absorbed into it, it seems that an electron may be made up of a circular chain of photons. This means that an electron losing a photon would have a smaller more energetic circle, somewhat moderating its energy change characteristics. It also means that parts of an electron are dependent on some propagation medium about them to participate in their spinning, and that stable condition relates to the Compton Effect, providing a spatial distribution of electrons.

Dr. Harold Aspden has calculated that there are 1760 such spatial charges per cubic meter. It appears that these hold themselves at bay equidistantly with some strength, and there arises the question if the excess electric fields from conventional dipole antennas result in wave straining of that spatial pattern, which close in is powerful, but dissipates within about 15 miles, as distinguished from the Maxwellian propagation medium wave, which like photons continues indefinitely.

Michelson and Morley were disappointed in their experiments to try to Doppler photons by the motion of the earth through space, yet they might have been successful in finding that photons don't Doppler, unlike continuous wave train whistles which deal with air having significant mass. The propagation medium is massless, with the exception of the spatial electron lattice, gravitational and magnetic strains, and in a traveling transition magnetically reacts with the electric component of the photon. This means that a photon leaving a distant celestial body will assume its free spectra and velocity as it leaves the influence of that body, and we should look for an explanation of the red-shift other than a Doppler causing Big Bang. Dr. Aspden has calculated that while a photon maintains its speed of light velocity, the tired light causing effect of the spatial electron lattice absorbs enough energy to explain it in terms of frequency decay with distance.

NASA's fairly recent experience with a tethered satellite provides an additional insight to spatial electrons. A small satellite was connected to an insulated wire, which was payed out from a shuttle for a distance of nearly 20 miles, when a defect in the insulation permitted an arc from the wire to the shuttle, severing the wire. It is suggested that like a person walking in dry slippers on a carpet causing sparks, that the small satellite picked up fewer spatial electrons than the much larger shuttle, and that the arc was an electron flow to equalize that disparity.

Similarly both the earth and moon have swept up very sizeable electron charges, and the like charge repulsion effect keeps the moon from crashing into the earth, while the gravitational effect keeps it from sailing out into space. A notch effect, probably otherwise exhibited in planetary ring material. The original publication on the new antenna was in the Colorado School of Mines Alumnai Magazine, January 1981. In this it was surmized that its radiation was essentially magnetic, however, further testing revealed that as above there is an electric component making the wave impedance 1 ohm, or that its name is more than justified as being "Maxwell Antenna". The antenna began as a need for a station device, but gradually its value as an evaluating tool became evident. Dr. Aspden has collected much of my test work and made it available on Internet at http:\\www.energyscience.co.uk\le\le10app.htm and I would appreciate his rewriting it using the name Maxwell Antenna instead of Gieskieng antenna, and as much of the foregoing as he sees fit. Since it treads some new ground, perhaps he should ask Nature's think tank to carefully review it because of its potential importance. Its long ranging power economy is an integrated solid 3db, or 50%, and has given interesting initial beam results for further gain. I have just reached the age of 80 years, and must leave it to others.

Postscript No. 1: In Einstein's admirable work on the theory of relativity the matter of the propagation medium at his time would have been mostly a unity factor, and may have been left out to conserve space in his equations. However, as above, its inclusion is necessary to enable the Maxwellian electromagnetic cooperation required in the composition of photons and other rays, elements, radio waves, and gravity - including black hole anomalies.

Postscript No. 2: Colorado School of Mines Professor John Klein, even while suffering from terminal colon cancer, favored me with a two hour meeting in which he assured me that Maxwell's work was sacrosanct. While he was obviously in physical discomfort, he was still lucid and glad for the opportunity to share his knowledge.
D. H. Gieskieng, W0FK (1st amateur license 1935. CSM EM '41)
9653 Rensselaer Dr.,
Arvada, Colorado 80004,
December 1, 1998

The background to the above is the subject of LECTURE NO. 10: APPENDIX in these web pages, but see also ANTENNA FEEDBACK FROM DAVE GIESKIENG where the antenna form discussed above is illustrated.
Harold Aspden
January 1, 1999